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The role of Muawiya in the martyrdom of Imam Ali, Imam Hassan and Janabe Ayesha
Imam Ali Shihadah Muawiyah


Ahlul Bayt

The role of Muawiya in the martyrdom of Imam Ali, Imam Hassan and Janabe Ayesha 


Were the Kharijites the main designers of the assassination of the Imam, peace be upon him, and Mua’wiyah had no role in it? Are the stories related to Qutām’s role in Imam’s assassination true? Or that the main designer of the assassination of the Imam, peace be upon him, was Mua’wiyah , and everything that has been written in history about the perpetrators of the assassination of the Imam, peace be upon him, is fabricated and fabricated to exonerate Mua’wiyah  from killing him?


The martyrdom of Imam Ali was the result of the joint conspiracy of Mu’awiyah as the representative of the Safin War, Ibn Muljam as the representative of the Nahrwan War, and Ash’ath as the representative of the Jamal War, all of whom were determined to kill the Imam. Of course, in the meantime, we cannot ignore the shortcoming of some Shia elites in oppressing the Imam and caliph of the Muslims, which finally led to Hassani’s peace and Hosseini’s martyrdom.


According to the reports of Shia and Sunni historians, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was martyred with the conspiracy of some remnants of the Khawarij. The result of the first historians’ reports about this is that after the end of the Nahrwan war, a group of Kharijites gathered in Makkah and, while mourning their deaths, discussed how to take revenge in this incident and find a solution to solve the current problems of the Islamic world with They consulted each other and finally came to the conclusion that all seditions can be traced back to three people: Ali, peace be upon him, Mu’awiya and Amr bin As, and as long as they are alive, it will continue, contrary to the rules of the Islamic Ummah. Three of them took it upon themselves to kill them. Abd al-Rahman bin Muljam from the Bani Murad tribe took it upon himself to kill Ali, peace be upon him. Burak bin Abdullah from the Bani Tamim tribe killed Mua’wiyah , and Amr bin Bakr from the same tribe killed Amr bin As. They decided to assassinate them on one of the nights of the month of Ramadan, when all three of them have to come to the mosque, and according to popular belief, on the 19th night of the month. Amr bin Bakr, who was assigned to kill Amr As, killed another who had gone to pray that night, Burak bin Abd Allah, wounded Mua’wiyah . But Ibn Muljam, with the instigation of a beautiful woman named Qutām and with the cooperation of Wardan bin Majald and Shabib bin Bajrah, put his evil intention into practice and killed Imam Ali, peace be upon him. What was mentioned can be said to be the case of almost all Islamic historians; But was the story really like that or is the truth something else? As stated in the historical texts, were the Khawarij the main designers of the assassination of the Imam, peace be upon him, and Mua’wiyah  had no role in it? Are the stories related to Qutām’s role in Imam’s assassination true? Or that the main designer of the assassination of the Imam, peace be upon him, was Mua’wiyah , and everything that has been written in history about the perpetrators of the assassination of the Imam, peace be upon him, is fabricated and fabricated to exonerate Mua’wiyah  from killing him? Some of the contemporary historians are in favor of the latter hypothesis and basically deny the involvement of the Khawarij in the killing of the Imam (peace be upon him). Dr. Seyyed Jafar Shahidi, while referring to this theory, writes: I do not want to say like the contemporary historian of Abadi, Sheikh Suleiman Yusuf bin Dawood, that the Khawarij were the companions of Ali, peace be upon him, and they did not participate in killing him, and the Bani Murad tribe – which Ibn Muljam He was one of them – he is not among the Kharijites, and the story of the son of Muljam and the other two people is made up by Mua’wiyah ‘s storytellers to hide the truth from the people. On several places in his book, I took notes in his presence in Al-Jazeera and wrote to him in a letter; But if someone says that the conspiracy of martyrdom of Ali, peace be upon him, is not as it has been said, I do not consider his statement to be far from the truth.[1] He writes: The totality of these contradictions confirms the fabrication of the original story. It seems that the story of Qutām was made up and linked to its work by three people so that it would be more popular in the minds. , should examine the role of each of the Khawarij, Mua’wiyah  and Qutām in the killing of the Imam (peace be upon him) separately:


1. The role of Khawarij

The role of a number of Kharijites in the conspiracy to kill the Imam, peace be upon him, is one of the most important facts in the history of Islam and cannot be denied. The Kharijites themselves acknowledged this and sometimes praised it. Imran bin Hattan, praising Ibn Muljam’s action, wrote: What a stroke of cowardice! who had no intention but to reach the satisfaction of God, the owner of the throne. The day I remember him, I think he is the best of people in terms of the weight of his actions in the eyes of God. [3] Also, Ibn Abi Miyas Moradi says: We were the ones who beat Abu al-Hasan Haider, and the difference was the split. We were the ones who brought his government out of its system with the blow of the sword that went over and landed firmly. We are elders at dawn and we are loved ones when death takes away the clothes and robes of death. Undoubtedly, if such an issue was created and addressed by Mua’wiyah ‘s storytellers, this important historical issue would not remain hidden from the eyes of historians and commentators. Of course, the extent of the Khawarij’s role in this conspiracy and whether they acted independently or were the tools of Mua’wiyah  or his mercenaries in this evil act, and also how the conspiracy was implemented, are issues worthy of consideration and investigation.


2. The role of Mu’awiyah

From a historical point of view, there is no document that can clearly link the conspiracy to kill the Imam (peace be upon him) with Mu’awiyah; But there are clues that the researcher cannot deny his role in this relationship. There is no doubt that Mua’wiyah  wanted to kill the Imam (peace be upon him). Because he knew very well that as long as Ali (peace be upon him) is alive, he cannot reach the caliphate, and on the other hand, not only is killing the Imam (peace be upon him) in the battlefield usually impossible; Rather, the experience of the Safin event proved that if this war is repeated again, it will lead to the definitive defeat and destruction of Mua’wiyah . Therefore, the best way to eliminate the Imam, peace be upon him, is to assassinate him; The way that was experienced in the case of Malik Ashtar, the most efficient of the forces accompanying the Imam (peace be upon him). To carry out the assassination plan, the best way is for this plan to be carried out by the former companions of Imam (peace be upon him) (that is, the remnants of the Khawarij who have recently engaged with him) who are seeking the blood of their like-minded people, and for this dangerous and evil action, the motivation They have enough. In addition, tracing the conspiracy and reaching its main designer is simply not possible. Perhaps the reason for the absence of a historical document to prove the connection between this story and Mua’wiyah  is the same issue. Basically, such secret decision-making in governments is not something that historians should know about and record in history. Another reason to think about is Ash’ath’s role in this story. He was not with the Imam (peace be upon him) at heart; Rather, he had threatened to assassinate the Imam (peace be upon him).[4] The Imam (peace be upon him) officially called him a hypocrite; However, due to the fact that he was the head of the Kendeh tribe and his abandonment would prevent this great tribe from accompanying the Imam, peace be upon him, he had no choice but to tolerate and appease him. Ash’ath’s role in imposing the rule on the Imam, peace be upon him, as well as the ruling of Abu Musa and the events after that, indicate his secret relationship with Mu’awiyah. Therefore, his awareness of the conspiracy to assassinate the Imam (peace be upon him) before it happened and Ibn Muljam’s communication with him before the action, can be traces of the Damascus conspiracy in this matter. Ibn Abi al-Dunya narrates from his master Abd al-Ghafar: I heard from many people that Ibn Muljam was with Ash’ath at night, and when it was dawn, he said to him: Morning, it has become clear! [5] Many historians have narrated that Ibn Muljam before When he was passing by Ash’ath in the mosque, Ash’ath said to him: “Hurry up, hurry up for your work, they will recognize you”. what is he He said to him: Oh Luch! Did you martyr him? And he immediately left the mosque to tell the incident to the Imam, peace be upon him, who entered the mosque from another way. Hojjar arrived when the work was finished. This evidence can support the theory of Damascus’s involvement in the assassination of the Imam (peace be upon him). But not in the sense that the Kharijites were not involved; Rather, it means that they (albeit by means) have taken this action under the influence of Mua’wiyah ‘s trick. As the same possibility is also present in the process of “imposing judgment” on Imam, peace be upon him. The only point that may damage this theory is that if Mua’wiyah was involved in planning the assassination of Imam (peace be upon him), wouldn’t this plan include him and his close colleague Amr As? In response to this doubt, we can say: First of all, there is a possibility that Mua’wiyah ‘s thigh being hit, like someone else being killed instead of Amr As, is a political stage so that the future ruler will have less problems with the people. Secondly, in indirect conspiracies where the agents who oppose the main designers of the conspiracy are its directors, perhaps the fire of the conspiracy will spread to the main designers as well, especially in that era when quick information was not possible.


3. Qutām’s role

Historians have gone to extremes regarding the role of Qutām in the killing of Imam (peace be upon him). Some have painted his role in this story. Perhaps the first historian who magnified the story of Qutām in the conspiracy to kill the Imam, peace be upon him, was Ibn Atham. Allameh Majlesi also narrated this story from an unknown book in the form of a love novel. This same story, when it falls into the hands of George Zidan (an Arab Christian storyteller), finds many leaves. On the other hand, some contemporary researchers have questioned the existence of such an incident in the killing of the Imam, peace be upon him, pointing to the flaws and contradictions in this story. It seems that the principle of Qutām’s existence and his role in the conspiracy to assassinate the Imam (peace be upon him) cannot be denied. As the stories in this context in al-Futuh Ibn Atham [7] and Bihar al-Anwar [8] and written by George Zidan [9] are also unreal. Authors of ancient sources, such as: Al-Tabataq al-Kubara (230 AD), Imamat al-Siyasya (276 AD), Ansab al-Ashraf (279 AD), Al-Akhbar al-Tawwal (282 AD), Al-Kamal al-Mbarbarad (285 AD), Tarikh al-Tabari (285 AD) 310 AH), al-Futuh (314 AH), promoter of al-Dahhab (346 AH) and Muqatil al-Talbeyin (356 AH) on the role of a woman named “Qutām” whose father and brother, and in some texts her uncle, were killed in the Nahrwan war. and for this reason, he had a grudge against the Imam, peace be upon him, they agree in the conspiracy to kill the Imam, peace be upon him, and his connection with Ibn Muljam. Therefore, it is not easy to deny the origin of the story; But how it is, is questionable and what is written about it in the form of a novel is definitely false. Perhaps the closest report to the truth is the text of Ansab al-Ashraf wa al-Imamah wal-Siassah, in which it is stated: Ibn Muljam came to Kufa and hid his work and met a woman named Qutam, the daughter of Alqamah, who was from the Khawarij, and Ali, peace be upon him, was in war with Khwaraj had killed his brother and got married. Marriage with him was on the condition that he would kill Ali (peace be upon him). He stayed with him for a while. One day, Qutām said to him – who lives in hiding – for a long time you like to stay with your family and you have ignored the work you came for! He said: I have set a time with my companions that I will not exceed. [10]


Who was behind the poisoning and martyrdom of Imam Hassan Mujtaba?

According to many narrations in Shia and Sunni books, Mua’wiyah bin Abi Sufiyan sent Sami to Ja’da, the daughter of Ash’ath bin Qays, the same hypocrite who played a key role in all the events of the time of the Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him), and promised her that if Imam Hassan (peace be upon him), I will marry you to my son Yazid. Ja’dah also carried out Mua’wiyah’s order and martyred him with poison sent by Mua’wiyah while he was fasting and had come home to break the fast.


How Janabe Ayesha died

There is a difference of opinion about how Aisha died. Sunni sources considered her death to be natural and said that Ayesha passed away in 58 AH and Abu Hurairah prayed over her. Of course, they wrote before that that Abu Hurairah also died in the same year.[11] Ayesha was buried in Baqi’ cemetery. But some Shiite sources consider Mua’wiyah to be the cause of Aisha’s death. Sayyed Ibn Tawus has quoted two quotes in this regard from the book “Early Mistakes” authored by Abu Arabah (died 318 AH)[12]. In his first quote, Abu Arouba said: “Mua’wiyah was on the Prophet’s pulpit in Madinah taking the oath of allegiance from the people for Yazid, when Aisha called out from her room: Be quiet!” be quiet! Is it customary for elders to invite people to pledge allegiance to their son? Mua’wiyah said: No. Ayesha said: So who did you imitate in your work and whose tradition do you follow? Mua’wiyah was embarrassed and came down from the pulpit and dug a well and threw Ayesha into the well with a trick and because of this Ayesha died. But in another narration, it is said: “Ayesha went to Mua’wiyah’s house while riding a donkey.” Ayesha did not respect Mua’wiyah’s sanctity and went on the carpets with her donkey. And the donkey urinated on them. Mua’wiyah complained to Marwan about Ayesha’s actions and said: I cannot tolerate this woman. With Mua’wiyah’s permission, Marwan was responsible for solving this problem. He dug a well and made Aisha fall into it. This happened on the last day of Dhul-Hijjah”.[13]


[۱] Ali from the tongue of Ali, p.160

[۲] Ali from the tongue of Ali, p.160, p. 162

[۳] Explanation of Nahjul-Balāghah: Vol.5, p.93

[۴] ibid: vol. 10, p.438, H. 4706

[۵] The Maqtal of Imam, the Commander of the Faithful, Ali bin Abi Talib: p.36

[۶] ibid: p.319

[۷] Al-Fotouh: vol. 4 p. 275-276

[۸] Bahār al -Anwar: Vol.42, p.228

[۹] Book 17 Ramadan.

[۱۰] Anssab Wa Al-Ashraaf Vol.3 p.250 & 253, Al-Imamah and Al-Siyaasah vol.1 p.179 & 180

[11] Dhahabi, Muhammad bin Ahmad, History of Islam, research: Tadamri, Omar Abd al-Salam, vol. 4, p. 164, Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, Beirut, second edition, 1413 AH; Ibn Athir, Ali Ibn Muhammad, Al-Kamal fi al-Tarikh, vol. 3, p. 520, Dar Sadir, Beirut, 1385 AH.

[12] Abu Aroubah, Hossein bin Muhammad bin Abi Mushar Maudood Ibn Hammad Al-Salami al-Harani is one of the historians of the 4th century of Hijri. See: Amin Ameli, Seyyed Mohsen, Ayan al-Shi’a, vol. 6, pp. 166-167, Dar al-Taqqin for printing, Beirut, 1406 AH.

[13] Seyyed Ibn Taus, Al-Taraif Fi Marafah Madhab al-Tawaif, Vol. 2, p. 503, Al-Khayyam, Qom, 1st edition, 1399 AH.

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